Monday, October 12, 2009

Study for AIEEE

Cracking AIEEE is not very simple, and for this very reason knowledge horizon will provide you with best advise for the future.
If you goal is AIEEE, then there are 2 ways to get through that.
1) Study for you boards(whatever you have in the state first). The boards get over a month or two befor the AIEEE. After the boards, a student covers of about 80% of the syllabus. After boards, you can concentrate on AIEEE, the boards study will help alot. Knowledge horizon has courses tailored for students in this category. We have courses which prepares you from the start. For the boards and also for AIEEE.

2) The other way is to concentrate on AIEEE right from the begining. So there is plenty of time for getting used to the different format of AIEEE. Knowledge horizon also have courses, crash courses too. All of them are with mock test and revision classes for previous question papers.

Whatever way you choose to do and the way you want to prepare for AIEEE. We "knowledge Horizon" are there for your help and assistance.
To know more about the coaching, classes etc. Contact us.
Tell - 011-24366349/24366316/24365715
Website -

Monday, September 28, 2009


The Institute has produced wonderful results in the last few years and has made its presence felt in every corner of Delhi. Needless to say, this all could be possible only due to blessings of the almighty, proper planning at the institute, sharp implementation of the planning, taking timely feed back from students regarding their level of satisfaction at the institute and follow up action to plug the shortcoming pointed out by the students from time to time.

Special Features of the Institute:

1. Well planned program of teaching and highly competitive environment.
2. The courses are completed to the satisfaction of students and well in time. Sufficient time is slotted for making revisions, conduction of tests and doubt solving sessions.
3. Regular tests and their discussion is conducted so as to clarify any doubt left in the mind of students.
4. Regular feedback from students is taken to increase their level of satisfaction.
5. Monthly performance and attendance report is mailed for the reference of parents.
6. The courses are designed in such a way that study material is self-sufficient for the students and they do not have to look for any other study material for the purpose of Medical Entrance preparation..
7.Adequate library facility for reading is provided to the students so that they can consult books, whenever they find free time.

Coaching you towards success

Knowledge Horizon Classes is supported by some of the best academic brains & host of collaborations with some of the best names in supplementary education. The student will greatly benefit from our state-of-the-art infrastructure, highly competent & passionate faculty, well researched & innovative content & methodology in chosen subjects as well as special modules created for personality grooming & a very rich blending of education with technology.
Why students and parents choose us-
1. Impeccable system of administration with strict discipline, not only for students but also for teachers & admin staff
2. Highly qualified and trained teachers. We have teachers from top institutes/universities like IIT Delhi, IIT, Roorkee, IT-BHU, Delhi University & other state engineering colleges & universities. Additionally, we hire top quality teachers from market.
3. Unmatched results in entrance exams. Knowledge horizon has produced stars for the toughest entrance exams like, AIIMS, IIT-JEE, AIPMT, AFMC, JIPMER, MAHE, BHU etc.
4. Exhaustive, relevant and original study material and Test papers, which are designed to the correct pattern and approved syllabus by institute’s teachers
5. Learning and competitive environment We provide the necessary edge & exposure to students.
6. Integrated approach of teaching, which not only prepares students for entrance exams but also for school/board exams.
7. Special tutorial classes to discuss doubts of students. This helps a lot in uplifting the knowledge levels of weak & shy students.
8. Work culture, which creates a hub of entrepreneurs and not just bunch of employees. Everyone owns his/her job and produces best to his/her ability.
9. Strategically located centres for convenience of students & parents.
10. Brilliant initiative like online tests, attendance reporting and test score reporting through SMS, email etc

For further information please contact us at-
Tel- 011- 24366349/ 24366316/ 24365715
Website- ,

Monday, September 21, 2009

Medicine as a Corporate Enterprise: A Welcome Step

Medical profession and corporate culture - are the two concepts mutually exclusive? From the era of the humble family physician who was the end point of all of a patient's needs, we have progressed to the era of the five-star corporate hospitals with hi-tech facilities but inadequate patient satisfaction. Let us not forget that medical science is about healing people. People involved directly in this enterprise are doctors and paramedical staff; and those indirectly are the pharmaceutical industry, services staff, medical equipment industry and medical institutions. Each spoke in the wheel of health care has its designated function, is indispensable and has an equivalent role to play in optimal health-care delivery.At the center of the wheel is the doctor. A humane approach by the treating physician not only ensures proper treatment but also elevates the doctor to the status of a demigod. Why is it that there are big tertiary care hospitals with such a reputation that patients flock to them from far and wide while some others are simply five-star hospitals catering to the rich and the insured?The culture present in successful business enterprises therefore needs to be implemented to make medicine a successful business. If health care were deemed a business, then the tools that help fix other businesses will fix it too (Waldman, 1996).Can big corporate hospitals do this? Why not? It would be all too easy if everyone involved at every level remembers that the hospital exists because patients have to be treated. Starting from the receptionist at the entrance to the administrative staff to finally the medical and paramedical personnel, everyone should treat the patient as a revered guest. Pharmaceutical companies, medical equipment manufacturers, philanthropic bodies, insurance companies and finally the government should work in tandem with doctors to ensure quality care and to subsidize poor patients.A corporate hospital may have all the trappings of a five-star luxury hotel, but a good number of such hospitals are found to be abysmal in terms of competency and adequacy of treatment. This is reflected in the increasing incidence of litigation against doctors and hospitals. Let us not forget that the patient is not a fool and is not to be taken for granted. A patient may be brought to the hospital on his deathbed and may not be saved despite the doctor's best efforts; but if there has been sufficient communication and a humanitarian approach shown to the family, very few disputes would arise as far as settling the bill is concerned. Not only doctors but also paramedical and administrative staff should be trained to handle such situations.Low Payoffs to Physicians and Patient - The Final RecipientAchievement of value and profitability through emphasis on efficiency, productivity and high quality is not necessarily seen as a feature of health-care delivery setups (Faria, 1998a). Despite inflated costs, the for-profit hospitals are often shown to provide inferior quality of care (Geyman, 2003). The term "medical-industrial complex" to describe these interrelationships is not a new concept, the term having been introduced in 1980 (Relman, 1998; IJME, 2001). It implies a new industry that supplies health services for profit (Relman, 1980).The evolution of the corporate hospital came from increasingly low payoffs to physicians from Medicare (Relman, 1980; Kereiakes, 2004). Physicians sought comfort and safety in numbers by resorting to group practice in the face of increasing litigation and practice costs. Although the corporate hospital gave a space for practice, it increasingly encroached on the physician's autonomy and forced him to compromise to curtail costs (Kereiakes, 2004; Faria, 1998b). This tendency to compromise is what ails the health-care system (Waldman, 1996). Even if health care is more a public service than a business, management principles and solutions can apply. A bridge must be built between the two cultures.It is often assumed that "hospitals function like other businesses, meaning high costs equal inefficiency" (Relman, 1980). This needn't apply to the health-care or hospital setting. A common example often cited is that of joint replacements. The cost of joint replacement is escalating with the cost of implants; however, the payments from care providers have remained almost static. This means that the bulk of the package goes towards implant costs, decreasing profits and physician payouts. To offset this, if a cheaper implant were to be used, the longevity and safety of the joint would be compromised, which is hardly the correct solution to curtail costs. This type of cost curtailing measure is often used to provide joint replacement solutions to uninsured and poor sections of society, in public health setups and in some private hospitals. Short-term gains are always attractive; but what does one say of long-term losses, of the higher incidence of revisions to be expected out of such irrational use of surgical procedures? A more rational solution is to include joint replacement in the ambit of general insurance more widely and also to ensure good local implant quality by implementing certification and continuous-monitoring procedures. The payouts in packages by the insurers must make provision for increasing costs.As a means to achieve efficiency, corporate strategies of TQM (total quality management) and CQI (continuous quality improvement) may be applied in the health-care setting. However, these strategies have not found equivalent success (Waldman, 1996).Every aspect of health-care delivery and ancillary services is inextricably linked to its final recipient, the patient. This equation changes the very perspective with which we view the so-called "enterprise." Our clients are human beings in physical and mental distress, and disease takes a heavy toll on emotions and well-being of everyone in the vicinity of the sick person. Profit-making, therefore, has to be weighed well against the comfort and care provided to the patient and his near and dear ones. Under no given circumstance can patients' concerns be allowed to be pushed aside in favour of curtailing costs and achieving profits.Corporate Trust HospitalsThere have been accusations of corporate hospitals run by trusts not fulfilling their obligations of providing free treatment to a certain percentage of patients as specified by law, while claiming all exemptions that can be claimed on tax and equipment. It needs to be noted that none of these so-called trust and research centers do any research. It would be enlightening to know their quantum of research output, besides that measured in rupees, and their research setups before permitting further sanctions.None of these trust hospitals are cheap either. Most of them are as expensive as the hospital next door. The only doctor who treats "cheap" in the private sector is still the nearby "small nursing home." The only thing in which the charitable and trust tag comes up is in the physician payout, which is miserable, to say the least. It is also quite educating to see the small proportion of the total package that constitutes the doctor's charges. Charity is practiced by the doctor, not the hospital, and the hospital practices charity in the name of the doctor.Corporate Culture in Health CareHealth-care organizations are social groups comprised of people who pursue a common purpose, share values and beliefs and therefore possess a common culture (Waldman, 1996).Corporate culture is fundamental for accomplishing any sustainable change in care delivery. The term implies that the altruistic call of healing has a business side too (Waldman 1996); and by culture, we mean values, attitudes and behavioral attributes.Waldman (1996) feels that there is a threefold reason for the problems in corporate health care:
If the corporate culture in health care is seriously dysfunctional, it could be the root cause of its problems.
The human resource development issues in health care are of concern because of high turnover rates and professional withdrawal.
Corporate culture tends to resist change. In medicine change is homeostatic and essential for functioning and doesn't always translate into costs.Sometimes, management principles such as optimization, which otherwise works well in other cultures, may have exactly an opposite effect in health care. The apparent cost cutting by cutbacks in staff and diagnostics, as per corporate management strategy, may actually lead to delays and increased costs as compared to savings which were expected.

Large Hospital Chains - Apollo, Max, Fortis, WockhardtThere has been a huge interest in the health-care segment in India in recent times. Large hospital chains have spread all over the country. The basic health-care setup was the small nursing home or the trust hospital in the past. This has now given way to a number of hospital chains like the Apollo, Max, Fortis and Wockhardt hospitals. These have not only penetrated big cities but they also cater to smaller towns and districts by way of satellite clinics or smaller outreach programs.Take the example of Apollo, which holds about 19 hospitals and has a foot in the pharmacy business too. It caters to primary-, secondary- and tertiary-care units, with the primary- and secondary-care units acting as feeders for the tertiary- and specialty-care centers. Bed strength is in the range of about 3,500 beds. It is the leader in tertiary care, and its Chennai and Kolkata facilities have a significant market share. It is now establishing a global presence - with units in Bangladesh and Colombo, staffed by a significant number of Indian consultants. There is a preference, noted by market analysts, to focus on tertiary care (as it is more paying) and to appoint doctors as full-time employees, as it is a major determinant in limiting costs and increasing turnovers. Historically, a revenue-sharing agreement was the norm. It has been shown by market analysts that as much as 28% of costs are employment costs.The Fortis group has established 10 hospitals and 12 heart centers in 5 years, bed strength of close to 1,600 and a stake in the Escorts Heart Institute. Wockhardt has also entered the hospital business with as many as 5 hospitals. Max is a subsidiary of the Max Group and has 4 functioning hospitals.It is to be noted that all these are run by major players in the pharmaceutical and health-care segment. For the doctor, this has created a never-before opportunity to practice in plush environments and offer world-class care. He has access to the best equipment, excellent trained medical staff and public relation and marketing support, without having to bother about any personal investment. Costs are still prohibitive and yet are offset by an increasing number of employers opting for these hospitals as preferred health-care destinations for their employees and paying for costs through group insurance policies. This not only makes health care more accessible but also generates a regular income for the hospital. Cashless insurance policies are also a major determinant in choosing these hospitals for care.The focus has therefore shifted away from the small nursing home. For the patient who has no access to insurance and who has no employer paying for him, the choice is still difficult and expensive; and probably the small nursing home may provide answers for his basic health needs. For the rest, the bigger corporate hospitals offer an attractive advantage.

Why are students keeping away from wards?

Much is being spoken about the undergraduate students and interns seemingly less enthusiastic about their 'ward postings'. They seem to abstain from wards more often, seem more interested in reading books in the library or even while in the wards and seem less inclined to attend 'ward rounds'. It is known that assessment scheme tends to drive student-learning and the type of assessment can influence learning. The assessment at graduation (MBBS) examination is done on the basis of theory and practical examination. The latter is still largely based on assessment of clinical skills. The scope of theory examinations is restricted to testing knowledge of a few important topics that are considered to be 'the bare essentials and basics' to be known by a medical graduate. Many new concepts in medicine have yet to find a place in the University syllabus. These make the MBBS exams quite predictable. In contrast, the postgraduate (PG) entrance examination is based on answering multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Most students today aspire to become specialists and hence, right from early days in the medical college, try to orient their studies to match the assessment pattern of PG entrance examinations. The MCQ-based PG entrance exams have no fixed syllabus. Most of these examinations, unfortunately, test only theoretical knowledge (mainly factual information) and not the practical skills. In spite of several obvious drawbacks such as having a surface approach and testing mainly memory the MCQ system was preferred for the PG entrance exam as this system is inexpensive, easy to administer, reliable, objective, uniform, and reproducible and has ample scope to increase competition. These examinations include many topics, which are not covered well in the graduation exams such as genetics, inborn errors of metabolism, newer histological and cytochemical techniques, serological markers, newer monoclonal antibodies, transplantation medicine, immuno-suppressants, anesthetic medications and techniques and oncology. For entrance exams to be cracked, students need to learn and remember finer details. The students apparently think that they can learn these by spending more time in the library rather than by seeing more patients in the wards! I can't imagine an undergraduate (UG) student of the previous generation losing his/her PG seat due to not knowing what 'Best' Disease in Ophthalmology is! Gone are those days, when a student aspiring to specialize could study only that subject thoroughly to get the postgraduate seat. Students today, have to face entrance exams that include detailed MCQs drawn from 20 UG subjects. One may lose a PG seat if finer nuances are not read and understood before the exam! It is this format that is pulling students back from the wards to the library! The students today are underestimating the importance of learning clinical skills. They should remember that it is these clinical skills that would help them throughout their professional career. The students should understand that both facets are important. The cases that one sees remain imprinted for a very long time. The details, of course, need a separate reading. This balancing act could be facilitated by broadening the scope of the UG syllabus. There is scope for improving the PG entrance exam model. As the outcome of MCQs depends on the type of MCQs framed, the MCQs could be drafted to test practical knowledge and understanding and the policymakers should consider including a step for testing clinical skills at these exams. The students' interest in ward work would be rekindled if the situation is reverted from being 'contradictory' to being 'complementary' between the two important evaluation stages in a medical student's life: (1) the graduation exam and (2) the PG entrance exam.

Medical education at the crossroads

Over the last 30 years, several changes have been introduced in medical education including the introduction of new contextualized approaches to instruction (e.g., problem-based learning [PBL]), the use of multimedia to enhance self-directed learning, the use of an integrated curriculum to address basic and clinical sciences, and the introduction of new formative and summative assessment tools that match with the curriculum changes. However, several challenges face medical education and need to be carefully researched. The list may be long and these challenges may vary depending on the needs of local and international health systems, the avaiability of resources, the vision of medical leaders and how they see these challenges and their impact. This paper discusses a number of challenges facing medical education including the selection of medical students and the validity of selection tools, students' learning skills, what makes a good medical curriculum, and the challenges facing a PBL curriculum.

"Medical education at the crossroads" was the title of an article published in the Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago approximately 34 years ago by an American physician, Paul Rhoads. This challenging topic emerges every 20 or 30 years to stimulate leaders and educators to assess the direction of medical education, the current needs of the medical profession and what medical education can do to fulfill these needs. Medical education is conceptualized as the complex process by which a medical student is changed from a medical school applicant to a medical school graduate. In other words, from unknowing to knowing, from unskilled to skilled, from layman to professional, from medical student to physician. [2] Although these changes were described by Socrates more than 400 years before the Common Era, it is of interest to note that since the time Dr. Rhoads wrote his paper, several changes have taken place in most medical schools. For example, dissection of the whole cadaver used to be an essential component of every medical curriculum. Disciplinet based rather than an integrated teaching approach was used in most schools and teaching was mainly based on lectures. At that time, problemtbased learning (PBL) was only known in two or three medical schools and information technology and medical informatics were unknown. Furthermore, the importance of role models in medical schools was not clearly defined.Medical education comprises complex processes including faculty selection of students, learning and acquiring information by medical students, teaching by the faculty members and governance by the education unit. How these processes are interrelated to form medical education as we know it today warrants critical assessment.The aim of this article is to address key changes and critical issues facing medical education including: (1) the selection of medical students, (2) the art of learning, (3) what makes a good medical curriculum, and (4) challenges facing a PBL curriculum. A review of the medical literature shows that these issues are not adequately addressed. However, these issues should constitute a framework for medical educators and should stimulate researchers to target them.

Sunday, September 13, 2009

Why choose engineering?

Job Satisfaction
It's important to find a career that you enjoy. After all, you'll probably be spending eight hours or more a day, five days a week, at your job. Engineering can provide a satisfying field of work.

Variety of Career Opportunities
From electrical and computer engineering, to environmental and biomedical engineering, an engineering degree offers a wide range of career possibilities. But the majority of today's college graduates will have more than one career during their work life, and engineering can provide a strong foundation for almost any one of them.

Challenging Work
There is no shortage of challenging problems in engineering. There is no single answer, no answer in the back of the book, no professor to tell you that you are right or wrong. You must devise a solution and persuade others that your solution is the best one.

Intellectual Development
An engineering education will "exercise" your brain, developing your ability to think logically and to solve problems. These are skills that will be valuable throughout your life-and not only when you are solving engineering problems.

Potential to Benefit Society
As an engineer, you can choose to work on projects that benefit society, such as cleaning up the environment, developing prosthetic aids for disabled persons, developing clean and efficient transportation systems, finding new sources of energy, alleviating the world's hunger problems, and increasing the standard of living in underdeveloped countries.

Financial Security
Engineering is a lucrative career. Engineering graduates receive the highest starting salary of any discipline.

Engineers help sustain our nation's international competitiveness, maintain our standard of living, ensure a strong national security, and protect public safety. As a member of such a respected profession, you will receive a high amount of prestige.

Professional Environment
As an engineer, you will work in a professional environment in which you will be treated with respect, have a certain amount of freedom in choosing your work, and have the opportunity to learn and grow through both on-the-job training and formal training.

Technological and Scientific Discovery
Do you know why golf balls have dimples on them, or why split-level houses experience more damage in earthquakes? An engineering education can help you answer these questions, and push you to ask new questions of your own.

Creative Thinking
Engineering is by its very nature a creative profession. Because we are in a time of rapid social and technological changes, the need for engineers to think creatively is greater now than ever before. If you like to question, explore, invent, discover, and create, then engineering could be the ideal profession for you.